From the period of the founding of Islam to the present day, Islamic architecture has evolved in a wide range of both secular and sacred forms. Islam has a variety of distinct architectural forms that include: the Mosque, Tomb, Palace, Fort, School, and other public structures such as those found in cities.

Islamic architecture developed a rich heritage for these structures and less significant ones like public baths, fountains, and private residences. An overview of Islamic architecture’s core theoretical difficulties is provided in the following article, which draws on essential components of the tradition’s rich history to give a concise discussion on the subject.

What is Islamic Architecture? 

Islamic Architecture

Scholars have disputed the significance of this seemingly straightforward issue for decades now, even though it appears easy at first glance. For example, domes, arches, and vaults are distinct architectural aspects that are meant to be referred to as Islamic Architecture. Whether or not these structures were designed, built, and occupied by Muslims is up for debate. Is this categorization is limited to simply religious systems, or does it also include non-religious buildings that are utilized for everyday purposes?

The term “Islamic architecture” encompasses religious structures designed for Muslim worship and secular structures constructed in or utilized by Muslims in predominantly Islamic regions. Muslim-majority nations worldwide and European countries with Arab or Islamic pasts like Spain and Portugal are the primary locations where you may see Islamic art and architecture.

The precepts of Islam are at the core of Islamic art and architecture, which dates back hundreds of years. Some of the most awe-inspiring artificial monuments in the world are characterized by Islamic architecture’s sculptural shapes and frequently brilliant ornate details.

Key Elements/ Classical elements of Neoclassical Architecture

Key Elements of Neoclassical Architecture

In addition to being well-known in the United States, Neoclassical design influenced art worldwide. With their Neoclassical architecture, builders wished to avoid the overt adornment of Rococo and Baroque forms, focusing on a more pared-down rendition of Classical antiquity’s architectural style.

Deeply dug porches and other constructions with protruding and extruding components were less common. In the past, bas-reliefs were framed by panels or friezes and were thinner than they are now. There was less attention to the architectural features’ ability to enhance the effects of light and shadow. 

Other Distinguishing Features Include:

Other Distinguishing Features Include
  • Buildings in the Neoclassical style are designed to wow visitors with their size and grandeur. Neoclassical structures’ floorplans are remarkably symmetrical.
  • The architectural aspects that were unnecessary and impracticable were omitted in favor of a more simple design.
  • The goal of Neoclassical architecture was to recreate the splendor of Classical Greek and Roman design.
  • The authoritative aspect of public buildings is enhanced by the absence of adornment on interior and external surfaces.
  • Neoclassical architecture roofs are flat and horizontal, with domed centers.
  • Tall columns of the Doric or Ionic order are shared in Neoclassical architecture.
  • They were constructed in a certain period, the 1800s, and were often surrounded by geometrically designed gardens.

History of Islamic Architecture

History of Islamic Architecture

The term “Islamic architecture” refers to a style of architecture that originated in the 7th century as a way for Muslims to show their beliefs through design. The Mosque, or Muslim house of worship, is the building most commonly associated with this architecture.

On the other hand, this architecture comprises many structures, from massive mosques and fortifications to smaller-scale structures like fountains, public baths, and household buildings.

Roman, Byzantine, and Persian architecture all impacted early Islamic buildings. This beautiful architecture was affected by Chinese and Mughal architecture as it extended over the world, particularly in Asia.

Islamic-mosque architecture in parts of Europe is a type of architecture produced by the North African Muslims who invaded the Iberian Peninsula and numerous neighboring Western Mediterranean islands and refined the style during hundreds of years of dominance. In Spain, there are several instances of this style. Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi’s work, heavily influenced by Islamic architecture in Spain, was part of a revival movement in the mid-19th century.

Critical Characteristics of Islamic Architecture


Minarets Of Islamic Architecture

Towering spires with inside stairs and tiny windows, minarets are spectacular to look at and serve a vital role, calling Muslims to prayer five times a day.


Domes Of Islamic Architecture

This architecture has domes built on structures called pendentives that make it feasible to install a round dome on a rectangle or square chamber. Pendentives are commonly ornamented with mosaic tiling.

Muqarnas Vaulting

Muqarnas Vaulting Of Islamic  Architecture

Resembling a honeycomb or stalactite pattern, extensive muqarnas vaulting gives a textured and monochromatic touch to the ceilings of typically elaborately and colorfully tiled rooms.


Arches Of Islamic Architecture

Horseshoe, pointed, scalloped multifoil; and ogee-style arches. Symbolic archetypes are one of the most celebrated elements in this architecture. A mosque is complete without these arches, which symbolize unity, purity, and glory in the Muslim faith. Mosques of old were adorned with high minarets and courtyards surrounded by rows of arches. Soon after, pillars were added to the halls to transform the architectural style.” Arches were used to demarcate religious and non-religious areas.”

Ornamental Details

Ornamental Details Of Islamic Architecture

Islamic decoration generally features multi-colored mosaic tiling displaying repetitive patterns and non-figurative geometric or vegetal themes and patterns such as the arabesque. It also typically incorporates the usage of Arabic calligraphy scripts, such as verses from the Qur’an.

Another noticeable characteristic is mashrabiya, or wood latticework, utilized on windows for seclusion and climate management and occasionally employed in a modern environment as a simple aesthetic element or choice for partitioning interior rooms. Other ornamental features of the Islamic style include wall paintings, stucco sculpture and wall panels, and beautiful woodwork.

Outdoor Elements

Outdoor Elements Of Islamic Architecture

Islamic art and architecture generally contain gardens, walled inner courtyards, open hypostyle rooms supported aloft by columns, and vaulting.

4 Historical and Modern Examples of Islamic Architecture 

1. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, Israel

Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, Israel

Dating from the 7th century, this famed public shrine is the world’s oldest standing Islamic structure. The construction of The Dome of the Rock was the first Islamic edifice to have a Byzantine-style dome; the construction of The Dome the Rock was one of the earliest milestones in creating an Islamic style. The gold-plated wood dome is positioned on an octagonal base. The structure itself is adorned with floral and geometric mosaics.

2. The Taj Mahal in Agra, India

The Taj Mahal in Agra, India

A UNESCO World Heritage Site Often and one of the New Seven Wonders of the World, the Taj Mahal is the most famous example of this architecture on the earth. Combining aspects of Indian, Islamic, and Persian architecture, this substantial 17th-century mausoleum complex has become one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations and treasured photo backgrounds, instantly identifiable because of its towering central white marble tomb. A closer study shows delicate elements such as beautiful inlaid stones and Arabic calligraphy.

3. The Alhambra in Granada, Spain

The Alhambra in Granada, Spain

The Alhambra is a 14th-century palace, castle, and UNESCO World Heritage Site situated on a plateau overlooking Granada, Spain. While the complex has lost part of its original structures over the previous 700 years, what remains of this enormous Islamic art and architecture complex is a spectacular example of Islamic architectural adornments, such as carved wood and stucco, colorful tiling, calligraphy, and muqarnas that decorate the Court of Lions.

4. Heydar Aliyev Center in Baku, Azerbaijan

Heydar Aliyev Center in Baku, Azerbaijan

A well-known example of a contemporary form of Islamic style is this award-winning 2013 cultural center created by the Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid, who died in 2016. The structure reinterprets the typical flow of architectural features present in traditional Islamic architecture, echoing centuries of heritage while seeming decisively contemporary.

Abu Dhabi's Sheikh Zayed Mosque
Jama Masjid
Asafi Masjid
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
Saint Petersburg Mosque
Nasir al-Mulk Mosque
Diyanet Center of America
Humayun's tomb symmetry
hagia sophia mosque


1. What Are the Four Primary Kinds of Islamic Architecture?

This primary architecture includes the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace, and the Fort. From these four forms, the language of Islamic art and architecture is formed and used for various buildings such as public baths, fountains, and home architecture.

2. What is Islamic Architecture called?

Alhambra is also another name for this architecture. Some of the most notable aesthetic characteristics are the finely carved geometric stalactite motifs that adorn the rooms around the Court of the Lions.

3. What Is Contemporary Islamic Architecture?

Modern Islamic architecture is developed for or by Muslim populations worldwide. It reflects a combination of a rich Islamic aesthetic tradition with contemporary shapes and styles.

4. What Materials Are Utilized in Islamic Architecture?

The materials employed in the Islamic period structures are relatively diverse, including bricks, chalk, tiles, stone, wood, and glass. Initially, raw adobe was used as the primary material, later replaced by bricks, and so far, it has had the most utilization in mosques. Also, chalk was employed for the interior section of the mosques.

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